PDF Figure 3. Geographic concentration of rare earth mine production...

2.2.1.1.4 Unconventional Sources of Rare Earth Elements In addition to mining and secondary production, REs can be extracted from unconventional sources, such as byproducts of mining or other upstream processes. Unconventional sources under consideration for RE recovery include coal and the clays and shales above and below the coal seams, coal ash from coal-fired power pla nts, [27, 28] geothermal fluids used for energy production, [29] mine ta ilings, [30] a cid mine dra ina ge, [31] a nd red mud (bauxite residue) generated from the production of alumina.

China Wrestles with the Toxic Aftermath of Rare Earth Mining

Beginning in the 1990s, rare earth mining took off in this region, located in Southeast China about 300 miles north of Hong Kong. As China began to produce more smartphones, wind turbines, electric vehicles, and other high-tech products requiring rare earth elements, the mining intensified. But the removal of these elements from the earth's ...

Rare-earth mining rises again in United States | Ars Technica

At the heart of argument are 17 little-known elements with whimsical names like europium and praseodymium, that are found in everything from mobile phones and computers to smart bombs and large wind turbines. Traces of the metals can be found around the world, but rarely in high enough concentrations for mining to be convenient or profitable. China now controls 95 percent of total rare-earth supply. A figurative sneeze on its export policy is all that's needed to shake global markets, and in 2010 China began restricting rare-earth exports.

Biomining Rare-Earth Elements | Cornell Engineering

There are 17 rare earths on the periodic table, ranging from the lightest, scandium, to the heaviest, lutetium, and they are highly valued for their unique physical and chemical properties that make them useful in sustainable energy technologies. As is so often the case, solutions to existing problems can create their own, new problems.

Is Mining Rare Minerals on the Moon Vital to National Security?

The seemingly barren moon may actually be a treasure-trove of priceless resources: a potentially bountiful, mineral-rich - yet untapped - cosmic quarry. Still, few see the moon as an alluring mining site, ripe for the picking of rare elements of strategic and national security importance. Here on Earth, China recently blocked the export of rare earth elements to Japan for use in an array ...

The Rare Earth Myth - The China Project

Today, rare earth mining — from the Amazon to the deep sea to the arctic to the moon — recalls the extractive exploits of 19th-century Western imperialism. Rare earth references — the "nuclear option" or "the new oil" — evoke the language of 20th-century American power. To see rare earths as inexorably tied to this era's great power competition is to be reminded of America's own habits and predilections. After the U.S. weaponized its technologies during the apogee of the trade war, there was no "tit-for-tat," despite much speculation that China could retaliate with its rare earths.

MP Materials: Rare Earth Mining Company Is The Thing Behind The...

A company that provides rare earth minerals needs for several sectors is this week's featured "Thing Behind The Thing." About MP Materials: In 2020, MP Materials Corp (NYSE: MP ) announced a SPAC merger to go public. The deal brought the decades-old Mountain Pass mining site in California public in a new effort to help the U.S. become less reliant on China's rare earth mineral mining. MP Materials has a mission to "restore the full rare earth supply chain to the United States of America." The company is the largest rare earth materials producer in the U.S. and the Western Hemisphere.

North Korea to give China right to mine rare earths in return for...

China could gain access to a rare earth mine in North Korea in exchange for investment in solar energy, a Chinese industry association website said. The deal could ease North Korea's chronic power shortages. According to the Association of China Rare Earth Industry, building a solar power plant capable of producing 2.5 million kilowatts of electricity each day in inland areas like North Pyongan would cost around $2.5 billion. China's reward for investing would be mining rights to a rare earth mine on the province's borders.

Mining Precious Rare-Earth Elements From Coal Ash - ICSC

29 June 2021 Rare-earth elements are in many everyday products, such as smart phones, LED lights and batteries. However, only a few locations have large enough deposits worth mining, resulting in global supply chain tensions. So, there's a push toward recycling them from non-traditional sources, such as waste from burning coal — fly ash.

PDF Rare Earths and China: A Review of Changing Criticality in the New...

In the wake of China's export restrictions, the Japanese government modified public-sector investment rules to allow government agencies to become active stakeholders in mining operations overseas, in particular through the government's resources arm, JOGMEC.26 In recent years, JOGMEC has teamed with Japanese private sector investors and trading houses to help secure rare earth materials from overseas, assisting with resource. exploration and developing mining operations such as Australia's Mount Weld, which is currently the largest rare earth mining operation outside of China.

Myanmar's poisoned mountains | Global Witness

Nidec said that China Southern supplies 100% recycled rare earth products to JL Mag, and that it believed the magnets being used for its products were unrelated to mining in Myanmar, but that it would look further into the matter. JL Mag did not respond to our request for comment. Even if companies are buying recycled rare earth products, there is a risk these products will be "contaminated" with heavy rare earth from Myanmar because materials from various sources get mixed together during processing, a rare earth industry expert told Global Witness.

The Rare Earth Elements: Demand, Global Resources... | SpringerLink

The rare earth elements (REE) have attracted much attention in recent years, being viewed as critical metals because of China's domination of their supply chain. This is despite the fact that REE enrichments are known to exist in a wide range of settings, and have been the subject of much recent exploration. Dostal, J. (2016). Rare metal deposits associated with alkaline/peralkaline igneous rocks. In P. Verplanck & M. Hitzman (Eds.), Rare earth and critical elements in ore deposits (Vol. Reviews in Economic Geology 18, pp. 33-54). Littleton, Colorado: Society of Economic Geologists.

China's rare earths bounty - The Globe and Mail

But amid escalating Sino-American tensions, global customers are searching for alternative sources of rare earths with a renewed sense of urgency. Last year, the U.S. government announced it was seeking allies to promote "resilient energy mineral supply chains" for a wide range of materials, including rare earths. Canada joined the effort, raising hopes that our mining industry will have a second shot at breaking Beijing's near-monopoly. It's part of a much broader reconsideration by Western countries of their reliance on distant suppliers.

Mining Rare Earths in Space - Faction or Fact? - Strategic Metals Invest

So several of the more than 16,000 celestial bodies close to Earth have already been analyzed by spectral analysis and the mining potential has been calculated. Psyche 16, a 210-kilometre asteroid in orbit between Jupiter and Mars, holds ores and rocks worth $700 trillion, this is according to the American space agency NASA.

Mining Rare Earth Elements in Space with Microbes | Planetary News

Microorganisms such as bacteria and archaea are capable of extracting metals from the environment in a process known as bioleaching. Bioleaching applications include extracting rare and valuable elements from ore by chemical techniques and decontaminating polluted environments. Accessible terrestrial supplies of rare earth elements (REEs) are becoming limited as a result of their high demand in advanced technology, which provides a motivation to investigate possible bioleaching in extraterrestrial environments.

Rare Earth Metals - News, research, prices and quotes

View: Source The new facility will be equipped to extract and separate rare earth elements and critical minerals from mining waste streams. The US Department of…... View: Source A rare-earth mine in Northwest China's Xinjiang File Photo: VCG China's rare earth export price hit a record high in August, jumping to $26…...

California Mine Becomes Key Part of Push to Revive US Rare Earths...

As part of the U.S. government's strategy to ensure safe and reliable supplies of critical minerals, the Defense Department has recently announced contracts and agreements with several rare-earth element producers. Among them is MP Materials, owner and operator of Mountain Pass mine, the only rare earth mining site in North America. Seventeen elements deemed critical to modern society were discovered at the Mountain Pass deposit, which, shortly after its discovery by American engineers in 1949, came to provide more than half of the world's needs for rare earth minerals.

Rare Earth Mining: The Dark Underside of Sustainability

Rare earth minerals are a highly valued commodity. China currently controls 80% of the world's resources and refines most of the rare earth minerals mined in the world. This in and of itself is not an issue unless rare earth minerals become politicalized, which occasionally they do. In 2010 China restricted rare earth mineral shipments to Japan.

The Future of Mining Rare Earth Elements Sustainably

However, in geological terms, REEs are rarely found in concentrated deposits as coal seams, for example, are making them economically difficult to mine. They are instead found in four main uncommon rock types; carbonatites, which are unusual igneous rocks derived from carbonate-rich magmas, alkaline igneous settings, ion-absorption clay deposits, and monazite-xenotime-bearer placers deposits. China Mines 95% of Rare Earth Elements to Satisfy Demand for Hi-Tech Lifestyles and Renewable Energy.

Scientists Refine Rare-Earth Elements From Mining Waste

However, REEs do exist in large amounts in a substance called phosphogypsum (PG), a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid from phosphate rock, of which the US has reliable sources. In 2017 alone, the US mined about 28 million tons of the mineral. Refining Rare-Earth Elements Out Of Phosphogypsum. In order to test whether REEs could be extracted from PG, they doped synthetic PG with six different REEs—yttrium, cerium, neodymium, samarium, europium and ytterbium—and tested different solutions to see if the REEs could be extracted.

America's only rare earth metals mine gears up | ZDNET

Molycorp's aptly named Project Phoenix rare earth mine and manufacturing facility is not running at full capacity. The company is producing 2,800 short tons of fresh rare earth ore per day and expects to reach full production by April 1. Molycorp says it's still on track to hit an annual rate of 19,050 metric tons of rare earth oxide --all of which already has a buyer -- by the end of the third quarter. A Molycorp exec told me their next goal will be to double annual production by the end 2013 of the year. (Note: I previously noted end of 2013, a figure provided and since corrected by the company.)

Rare earth metals mine in Xinjiang, China. Photo: opalpeterliu

From the mid-1960s through the 1980s, however, Molycorp's Mountain Pass mine in California was the world's main source of rare earth metals. As the U.S. share of rare earth metal production declined, China used government support, research and development, training programs, cheap labor and low prices to develop its supply chain, increasing its share of rare earth metal production from 27 percent in 1990 to 97 percent in 2011. In March, the U.S., Japan and the European Union lodged a complaint with the World Trade Organization over China's limits on rare earth exports.

Report: China Destroying Myanmar with Rare Earth Mining for 'Green...

Chinese-owned companies in Myanmar are allegedly responsible for illegal mining operations that are destroying the natural landscape of Myanmar's border region with China, local miners of dysprosium and terbium — two heavy rare earth minerals used in clean energy products and smart electronics — told the organization Global Witness for a report published on Tuesday. Global Witness revealed on August 9 how illicit rare earth mining allegedly supported by Chinese businessmen in Myanmar has ravaged a mountainous border region called Kachin Special Region 1, writing

How much earth has to be moved to get one tonne of copper

Is my interpretation correct? How do they stack up in the mining process? Using a 1% ore grade and 3:1 stripping ratio, does that mean that to get 1 tonne of copper, we need to move 400 tonnes of earth, as we need 100 copper ore that comes along with 300 tonnes of waste? Does the same logic apply to rare earth mining as well? I found the following numbers for the Bayan Obo mining district in China (see [1]): Neodymium content: 18.5%. REO(rare earth oxide) grade: 4.1%. Recovery rate: 50%. Tonne mined/tonne REO: 49.

The Importance of Rare-Earth Elements Mining in America | Nasdaq

Earlier this month, in fact, some scientists from the University of Edinburgh speculated about using microbes to extract rare-earth elements in space mining in an article published in the journal Nature. According to their experiments conducted on the International Space Station (ISS), a particular bacterium can extract 14 different rare-earth elements from basalt in space just as well as that microbe does on Earth. That means, according to those scientists, astronauts could mine rare-earth metals while on the moon or Mars and use them to build the technology they need in their settlements.

'The Sacrifice Zone': Myanmar bears cost of green energy | AP News

But an AP investigation has found that their universal use hides a dirty open secret in the industry: Their cost is environmental destruction, the theft of land from villagers and the funneling of money to brutal militias, including at least one linked to Myanmar's secretive military government. As demand soars for rare earths along with green energy, the abuses are likely to grow. "This rapid push to build out mining capacity is being justified in the name of climate change," said Julie Michelle Klinger, author of the book "Rare Earths Frontiers," who is leading a federal project to trace illicit energy minerals.

Rare Earths in Myanmar: Unobtanium? - The Diplomat

Kachin State in northern Myanmar has a long history of armed groups using illicit gold, copper, or iron deposits to fund insurgent activities. Lately, reports have been trickling in about a free-for-all scramble for the control of another group of valuable metals: rare earths. The spurt in unauthorized mining, which began after the coup of February 1, appears to be taking place along the border with China. The Kachin State mining department released photos of ten-wheeler trucks, presumably from China's Yunnan Province, loaded with the ammonium sulfate used to extract the metals.

Rare Earth Stocks: 11 Top Rare Earth Metal Companies

1. MP Materials Corp (NYSE: MP) MP Materials Corp. owns and operates integrated rare earth mining and processing facilities. It owns and operates the Mountain Pass facility located in the Western Hemisphere. It offers neodymium and praseodymium that are rare earth elements, which in combination form neodymium-praseodymium.

5 Rare Earth Stocks Seen Soaring as Materials Become Trade War...

About 80% of the rare earth materials used in the U.S. are imported from China, per data from the U.S. Geologic Survey cited by a detailed story in Bloomberg. Based on rising concerns that China may restrict exports to the U.S. to gain leverage in the trade war, investors have been scooping up stocks of five Chinese-based rare earth mining companies, whose share prices have posted sharp advances recently. Some of these stocks have doubled this year, and are likely to rise higher as the trade war continues.

What Investors Should Know About Trump's Rare Earth Mining...

The executive order declares a national emergency in the mining industry. The White House is ordering the Department of Defense to boost the production of rare-earth magnets. Why It's Important: The U.S. is currently dependent on China for 80% of its imported rare-earth compounds and metals. There is a fear that China could restrict exports of this segment due to ongoing tariff conflicts. Demand for rare earth minerals is expected to rise substantially. Mining Weekly shows the sector going from $2.98 billion to $5.65 billion by the year 2030. Metal Stocks Move: Northern Dynasty Minerals.

Мастерская Steam::Asteroid Mining - Rare Earth Minerals from...

Doesn't really do much. i got the Rare earth metal shortage issue, had a thriving space agency so on that turn i enacted this policy to maximum, and nothing really changed. even when fully enacted. even with the vanilla rare earth mining policy that didn't really do much either. two elections later and i still had the rare metal issue and.

Rare Earth Elements: Where in the World Are They?

Rare earth elements are a group of metals that are critical ingredients for a greener economy, and the location of the reserves for mining are increasingly important and valuable. This infographic features data from the United States Geological Society (USGS) which reveals the countries with the largest known reserves of rare earth elements (REEs).

Boom in Mining Rare Earths Poses Mounting Toxic Risks

The mining of rare earth metals, used in everything from smart phones to wind turbines, has long been dominated by China. But as mining of these key elements spreads to countries like Malaysia and Brazil, scientists warn of the dangers of the toxic and radioactive waste generated by the mines and processing plants. By Mike Ives • January 28, 2013